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The FITT-VP principle provides an exercise prescription framework for healthy individuals and those with various other health conditions. The FITT principle can be applied to aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and neuromuscular types of training. 

  • F = Frequency 
  • I =  Intensity
  • T = Time/duration 
  • T = Type/mode
  • V = Volume/amount of exercise 
  • P = Progression

Based on an individual’s fitness levels, the FITT-VP principle can be customized to match the individual’s needs.

Exercise Prescription for Healthy Adults

Beyond the activities that are part of daily living, most adults need to participate in regular and various exercise programs. 

An optimal training should address: 

  • Aerobic – cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) 
  • Muscular strength & endurance
  • Flexibility 
  • Neuromotor fitness

FITT-VP Principle – Aerobic:

Frequency of Aerobic Exercise: 

The ACSM guideline for exercise training recommends aerobic on 3-5 days a week for most adults. 

Intensity of Aerobic Exercise 

Exercising below the minimum threshold will not improve aerobic fitness parameters.  Yet, the minimum threshold for benefits seems to vary depending on an individual’s current CRF level.  For most adults, a combination of moderate and vigorous-intensity of recommended.

  • Moderate-intensity 40 – 60% VO2max 
  • Vigorous-intensity 60- 90% V02Max

Time of Aerobic Exercise 

Most adults should accumulate 30 -60 minutes per day or greater than 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity. 

Also, 20 – 60 minutes or greater than 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity. 

Type of Aerobic Exercise

Rhythmic large muscles group aerobic exercises that require little previous skill to perform are recommended for all adults. 

  • Walking
  • Cycling
  • Jogging 
  • Elliptical
  • More advanced – swimming, racquet sports, basketball, soccer. 

Volume of Aerobic Exercise 

Exercise volume is the product of the FITT principle and can estimate the total energy expenditure used in an exercise. 

  • METs
  • Kcal 

Target exercise range – 500 – 1000 MET – min/week for most adults; this volume is equal to 1000 kcal per week of physical activity. 

Rate of Progression of Aerobic Exercise 

Progression in exercise training depends:

  • Individual’s health status 
  • Training responses 
  • Physical fitness
  • Program’s goals 

The principle of “Star slow and go slow” is essential to reducing risks of cardiovascular events and other related musculoskeletal injuries. 


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